Pogonophryne immaculata

Common Name

Immaculate Plunderfish

Year Described

Eakin, 1981


Dorsal Fin: II-III, 27-28
Anal Fin: 17-19
Pectoral Fin: 19-20
Pelvic Fin: I, 5
Caudal Fin: 10 (branched rays)
Gill Rakers: 12-16 (total in first arch)
Branchiostegal rays: 5
Upper Lateral Line Scales: 19-28 (tubular anteriorly, disc-shaped posteriorly)
Middle Lateral Line Scale: 12-29 (disc-shaped anteriorly and tube-shaped posteriorly)
Vertebrae: 37-38

An “albipinna group” plunderfish. Body elongate, flattened ventrally, with a large and wide head (jaw width 25% SL). Post-temporal ridges not well developed. Eyes large. Snout rounded; length equal to orbit. Interorbital wide. Two dorsal fins: one a very small spiny fin over opercle and the other a long-based fin consisting of rays. Second dorsal fairly low. Anal fin about equal to dorsal in height with origin well behind dorsal origin. Pectoral fin large and fan-shaped. Pelvic fin jugular, rounded and short. Caudal fin truncate. Mouth reaching beyond middle or orbit; protractile. Lower jaw projects slightly. Jaws with small teeth. No teeth on vomer or palate. Upper opercular edge with a pointed, hook-like projection. Body naked. Two lateral lines: one on the upper body ending under the mid-dorsal fin and the other on the lateral midline on the rear body and caudal peduncle. Mental barbel short (<10% SL) and tapered, with a small papillae at the base.


Body unmarked brown, darkening laterally and ventrally. Dorsal and anal fins dark basally with irregular pale margins. Male with black on anterior dorsal fin and a white margin on the posterior dorsal fin. Caudal and pectoral fins dark with pale margins. Mental barbel white.


Adults range from 22-27 cm SL.


The deepest known species in the genus: collected at 1195-2600m. Bottom dwelling.


Sub-Antarctic: known only from off the S. Orkney Is.


Balushkin, A.V. and R. Eakin. 1998. A new toad plunderfish Pogonophryne fusca sp. nova (Fam. Artedidraconidae: Notothenioidei) with notes on species composition and species groups in the genus Pogonophryne Regan. J. Ichthyol. 38(8):574-579.

Eakin, R.R. 1990. Artedidraconidae. p. 332-356. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.

Eakin, R.R., J.T. Eastman, & T.J. Near. 2009. A new species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Antarctic fish genus Pogonophryne (Notothenioidei: Artedidraconidae). Copeia. 2009: 705-713.