Anthias cauoh

Common Name

Red Jewelfish

Year Described

Carvalho-Filho, Macena & Nunes, 2016


Dorsal Fin: X, 15
Anal Fin: III, 7
Pelvic Fin: I, 5
Pectoral Fin: 20
Caudal Fin: 15 principle rays, 6 D/V procurrent rays
Lateral Line Scales: 38
Gill Rakers: 13+26 = 39 total in first arch
Vertebrae: 10 precaudal, 16 caudal; 26 total

Fairly deep body, head 34% SL, and eye large (8.4% SL). Orbit longer than snout. Mouth oblique with lower jaw slightly longer. Upper and lower jaws both with small conical or villiform teeth, including larger canines. Dentary and palatine toothed. Vomerine patch pentagonal with a line of paired and then single teeth running posteriorly. Tongue usually with teeth. Anterior nostril a short tube. Most of head, and maxilla, covered in scales. Fins scaled on bases. Lateral line continuous. Accessory scales present on head. Scales around caudal peduncle number 18. No fleshy filaments present on dorsal fin spines. Caudal fin likely deeply forked but holotype’s tail is damaged and morphology not confirmed. Pelvic fin with short filaments.


Body bright red with yellowish to orange cast and lighter scale centers. Belly pale pinkish. Head with three yellow stripes: one from lower eye to pectoral base, one from mid orbit running onto cheek, and the top broken up and running from upper orbit to the upper opercle. Dorsal fin bright red with white in between first few spines. Anal fin bright red with yellow markings along rays and spines. Pelvic fin reddish with pale markings between rays. Caudal fin likely reddish or yellowish.


Holotype measured 165.2mm SL.


Only known specimen taken almost dead at the surface but likely deep reef like other members of the genus.


Known from one specimen taken at St. Paul's Rocks off Brazil.


Carvalho-Filho, A., B.C. L. Macena & D.M. Nunes. 2016. A new species of Anthiadinae (Teleostei: Serranidae) from São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil, Equatorial Atlantic. Zootaxa 4139 (no. 4): 585-592.

Anderson Jr, W. D., Baldwin, C. C., Carvalho-Filho, A., & Júnior, T. V. 2017. Redescription of the Jeweled Gemfish, Anthias asperilinguis (Serranidae: Anthiadinae), with comments on its ontogeny, phylogeny, and ecology. aqua, 23(3-24), 73.

Other Notes

Easily distinguished from the Caribbean Anthias hensleyi by coloration, gill raker number, pectoral ray count, and several body morphometrics (Carvalho-Filho et al, 2016).

There is evidence that the population of Anthias asperilinguis from St. Paul’s Rocks pictured in Anderson et. al (2017) is the same species as A. cauoh. The meristics and color pattern of the St. Paul’s Rock A. asperilinguis are quite different but the genetic divergence is not very great from coastal Brazilian fish of the same species. Since the type specimen of A. cauoh is damaged, more specimens are needed for study. Ichthyologists are quite skeptical if this is Odontanthias. It is possible that A. cauoh is a synonym of A. asperilinguis or it may be the name properly applied to the endemic St. Paul’s Rocks population of A. asperilinguis if it is shown to be distinct.